Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Remediation of cadmium-contaminated coastal saline-alkaline soil by Spartina alterniflora derived biochar.

Abstract

Following oil extraction in the wetland of the Yellow River Delta, heavy metal contamination of coastal saline-alkaline soil, especially with cadmium (Cd), has become a serious environmental problem in some regions. Biochar application has been proposed to remedy Cd-contaminated soil, but the remediation effect is related to preparation conditions of biochar (e.g., pyrolysis temperature and raw material) and soil properties. The invasive plant, Spartina alterniflora, produces a high amount of biomass, making it suitable for biochar production in coastal China. We investigated the effect of S. alterniflora-derived biochar (SDB) pyrolyzed at four temperatures (350, 450, 550, and 650°C) crossed with three addition ratios (1, 5, and 10%) and control on Cd contamination of coastal saline-alkaline soil. Pyrolysis temperature affected pH, surface area, and functional groups of SDB. SDB markedly improved soil pH and soil organic matter, but the degree of improvement was affected by pyrolysis temperature and addition ratio. SDB significantly altered available Cd content in soil, but reduced it only at low pyrolysis temperatures (350 and 450°C). Available Cd content had a positive correlation with soil pH (R2 = 0.298, P < 0.01), but was not related to salinity and soil organic matter content. Thus, SDB pyrolyzed at 350°C with 5% addition was optimal for passivating Cd in coastal saline-alkaline soil, since available Cd content in soil decreased mostly (by 26.9%). These findings act as a reference for the development of an application strategy for SDB to ameliorate Cd-contaminated coastal saline-alkaline soil.