Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Resistance of maize landraces from Brazil to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the winter and summer seasons.

Abstract

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest in Brazil, whose larvae cause losses from plant emergence to harvesting stage. This pest has been controlled almost exclusively with chemical insecticides and Bt plants (transgenics); however, resistance evolution has been detected to these two control tactics. Therefore, alternative control tactics are needed for management and control of the fall armyworm. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the resistance of maize landraces from Brazil to larvae of this herbivore in the winter and summer seasons, studying also the occurrence of the predator Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae). The variety Pérola had the highest resistance levels to fall armyworm in the summer season, with lower values of leaf injury, number of infested plants, and number of larvae. Conversely, this variety did not express resistance to the pest in winter. Doru luteipes was found abundantly in the summer season, showing no differences between varieties. This is the first study to evaluate the resistance of maize landraces from Brazil to fall armyworm in the winter and summer seasons. The next step is the molecular characterization of the variety Pérola, as well as evaluating its effects on the most common natural enemies of the pest in Brazil, such as the predator D. luteipes and the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). These results may assist future maize breeding programs aimed at developing cultivars and hybrids resistant to the pest, and hence reducing agriculture's dependence on chemical insecticides and transgenic plants.