In vitro evaluation of native entomopathogenic fungi and neem (Azadiractha indica) extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda.
The control of Spodoptera frugiperda is based on synthetic insecticides, so some alternatives are the use of entomopathogenic fungi (EF) and neem extract. The objective of the study was to evaluate in vitro effectiveness of native EF and neem extracts on S. frugiperda larvae. Six EF were identified by DNA sequencing of ITS regions from three EF (Fusarium solani, Metarrhizium robertsii, Nigrospora spherica and Penicillium citrinum). They were evaluated in concentrations of 1 × 108 spores/mL. In addition, a second bioassay was carried out evaluating only F. solani, M. robertsii and N. sphaerica and the addition of vegetable oil. On the other hand, extraction of secondary metabolites from neem seed (Azadirachta indica) was carried out by performing, mass (g) and solvent volume (mL ethanol and water) combinations, which were subjected to microwaves and ultrasound. Subsequently, these extracts were evaluated in concentrations of 3%, 4% and 5%. A survival analysis was performed for each of the bioassays. With respect to the results of the first bioassay, F. solani obtained a probability of survival of 0.476 on the seventh day, while in the second bioassay, M. robertsii obtained 0.488 survival probability. This suggests that the expected percentage of larvae that stay alive on the sixth day is 48.8%. However, in the evaluation of the neem extract the combination 1:12/70% to 4% caused 84% mortality of larvae. The use of native HE and neem extracts has potential for the control of S. frugiperda.