Assessment of flavonoids and phenolic compound accumulation in invasive Solidago canadensis L. in Slovakia.
Solidago canadensis L. was introduced to Europe as an ornamental plant from North America in 1645 and began to spread during the XIX - XX centuries. Nowadays the species is considered the most aggressive invasive species. On the other hand, S. canadensis is considered to be a medicinal plant . The raw material known as Herba Solidaginis includes herbs of S. canadensis, S. gigantea, and S. virgaurea. These species are known for their diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti spasmodic properties. The purpose of our study was to analyze the chemical compounds and some biological properties of S. canadensis, growing in Slovakia, to evaluate its therapeutic potential. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts from aerial parts of S. canadensis was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The evaluation of total flavonoid content (TFC) was performed by using a spectrophotometric method. The flavonoids content was expressed as rutin equivalents (mg REs) per g DW vegetal product. The phytochemical profile of S. canadensis extracts was assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The radical scavenging activity of samples was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Reducing power of extracts was determined by the phosphomolybdenum method. Total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of the extracts varied from 204.19 to 293.43 mg GAE. g-1 DW, and 64.99-175.25 g QE. g-1 DW, respectively; the best results we re obtained for ethanol extract. Some phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC with significant amounts of rutin (211.20 µg.mL-1), quercetin (122.08 μg.mL-1), quercitrin (102.50 μg.mL-1) and chlorogenic acid (147.00 μg.mL-1). The DPPH values in the inflorescences were higher than in the leaves: the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was in the range from 5.34 to 17.16 mg TE. g-1, for inflorescences, this parameter ranged from 6.09 to 19.87 mg TE.g-1. The high total phenolic compounds and flavonoids can be used as a valuable source of phytochemicals in herbal remedies. Our study of S. canadensis, growing in Slovakia, shows the promising potential that can be evaluated as an effective antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in herbal medicines.