Nectar and pollen production of Helianthus tuberosus L. - an exotic plant with invasiveness potential.
In Central Europe, Helianthus tuberosus L. is a late summer/autumn bloomer (August/November). The disc florets produce both nectar and pollen. Floral reward is available in male-phase flowers (pollen and nectar) and in female-phase flowers (nectar). The floral reward is attractive to a variety of insect visitors (honey bees, wasps, flies and butterflies). The season of blooming as well as the total sugar yield (25.4-47.4 kg ha-1) and pollen yield (57.8-212.7 kg ha-1) indicate that H. tuberosus is important in the enhancement of food resources for pollinators. The generative reproduction in H. tuberosus is impaired (the species does not set seeds/fruits). However, due to its attractiveness for a variety of pollinators in both rural and urban areas, the spread of H. tuberosus should be monitored. Moreover, its propagation needs to be attended with restrictions.