Milk vetch dwarf virus infection in the Solanaceae and Caricaceae families in Southeast Asia.
Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) is an important member of the genus Nanovirus and is transmitted by the aphid Aphis craccivora. MDV has multiple single-stranded DNA genome components, each approximately 1 kb, and two or three alpha-satellite molecules. It mainly infects plants of the legume family Fabaceae. Recently, papaya (Carica papaya) collected in Yesan, South Korea, displaying symptoms of leaf yellowing and dwarfism, was identified as a new host for MDV. To examine the geographical distribution of MDV, papaya samples with symptoms were harvested in South Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan in August 2018, along with tomato and pepper samples grown in adjacent fields in Vietnam. The results revealed the presence of MDV not only in papaya but also in pepper and tomato. This MDV infection in members of the Solanaceae family was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization performed using a PCR product of segment S as a probe. Based on sequence analysis of three MDV components (M, S, and C3), we verified the presence of three different isolates of MDV in these three countries and homology between sequences of isolates from papaya and from members of the Solanaceae from Vietnam. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate MDV infection in Vietnam and Taiwan for the first time and confirm that MDV can infect economically important pepper and tomato.