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Abstract

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Parthenium hysterophorus: optimization, characterization and in vitro therapeutic evaluation.

Abstract

Traditional synthetic techniques for silver nanoparticles synthesis involve toxic chemicals that are harmful to humans as well as the environment. The green chemistry method for nanoparticle synthesis is rapid, eco-friendly, and less toxic as compared to the traditional methods. In the present research, we synthesized silver nanoparticles employing a green chemistry approach from Parthenium hysterophorus leaf extract. The optimized parthenium silver nanoparticles (PrSNPs) had a mean particle size of 187.87 ± 4.89 nm with a narrow size distribution of 0.226 ± 0.009 and surface charge -34 ± 3.12 mV, respectively. The physicochemical characterization of optimized SNPs was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicates the spherical shape of NPs with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. PrSNPs were investigated for in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, and showed excellent profiles. The cytotoxic activity was analyzed against two cancer cell lines, i.e., B16F10 and HepG2 for 24 h and 48 h. PrSNPs proved to be an excellent anticancer agent. These PrSNPs were also employed for the treatment of wastewater by monitoring the E. coli count, and it turned out to be reduced by 58%; hence these NPs could be used for disinfecting water. Hence, we can propose that PrSNPs could be a suitable candidate as an antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor agent for the treatment of several ailments.