Current status of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda and counter measures to prevent its development.
Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas but is now a major global agricultural pest. S. frugiperda larvae attack a wide range of crops including maize, sorghum, peanut and soybean. This pest has four characteristics that exacerbate its pest status: polyphagy, high fecundity, strong migratory ability and the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. Since it invaded Yunnan province in January 2019, S. frugiperda is spreading rapidly through a dozen other Chinese provinces. Currently, control of S. frugiperda in China mainly relies on spraying chemical insecticides. However, some of the first S. frugiperda to invade China already carried genes conferring resistance to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. There is an urgent need to determine the resistance status of S. frugiperda in China so that the insecticides that are most effective against this pest can be identified and deployed. This paper reviews the monitoring methods and current status of S. frugiperda, and the mechanisms responsible for insecticide resistance in this species. Methods for monitoring and managing resistance in S. frugiperda in China are suggested.