A review of the parasitoid wasps of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their regulations on host immune responses.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), originates from America and spreads rapidly to the north of China since its invasion at the beginning in 2019, causing great losses to agriculture. As important natural enemy resources, parasitoid wasps play an irreplaceable role in pest control. The present review summarized the 170 parasitoid wasps of the fall armyworm spanning nine families, and discussed their prospects on the control of the fall armyworm. Besides, the regulatory mechanisms of parasitic factors derived from the wasps on host immune responses were described in detail. The review serves to record the biocontrol resources of the fall armyworm for its control.