Monitoring 2.0: update on the Halyomorpha halys invasion of Trentino.
"BugMap" is a citizen science mobile application that provides a platform for amateur and expert scientists to report sightings of two invasive insect pests, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) and the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The latter is a notorious pest of fruit trees, vegetables, ornamentals, and row crops, inflicting severe agricultural and ecological disturbances in invaded areas. Our approach consists of coupling traditional monitoring with citizen science to uncover H. halys invasion in Trentino. The project was initiated in 2016 and the first results were reported in 2018. Here, we revisit our initiative four years after its adoption and unravel new information related to the invader dispersal and overwintering capacity. We found that our previous model predicted the current distribution of H. halys in Trentino with an accuracy of 72.5%. A new MaxEnt model was generated by pooling all reports received so far, providing a clearer perspective on areas at risk of stink bug establishment in this north Italian region. The information herein presented is of immediate importance for enhancing monitoring strategies of this pest and for refining its integrated management tactics.