Evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lineages and their role in an emerging threat of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali.
In recent years Bamako has been faced with an emerging threat from multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Whole genome sequence analysis was performed on a subset of 76 isolates from a total of 208 isolates recovered from tuberculosis patients in Bamako, Mali between 2006 and 2012. Among the 76 patients, 61(80.3%) new cases and 15(19.7%) retreatment cases, 12 (16%) were infected by MDR-TB. The dominant lineage was the Euro-American lineage, Lineage 4. Within Lineage 4, the Cameroon genotype was the most prevalent genotype (n = 20, 26%), followed by the Ghana genotype (n = 16, 21%). A sub-clade of the Cameroon genotype, which emerged ~22 years ago was likely to be involved in community transmission. A sub-clade of the Ghana genotype that arose approximately 30 years ago was an important cause of MDR-TB in Bamako. The Ghana genotype isolates appeared more likely to be MDR than other genotypes after controlling for treatment history. We identified a clade of four related Beijing isolates that included one MDR-TB isolate. It is a major concern to find the Cameroon and Ghana genotypes involved in community transmission and MDR-TB respectively. The presence of the Beijing genotype in Bamako remains worrying, given its high transmissibility and virulence.