Adaptive management of an iconic invasive goat Capra hircus population.
We describe the first use of fertility control to manage a free-living mammal population in Europe. An immunocontraceptive vaccine (GonaCon) was used to reduce female fertility in an invasive feral goat Capra hircus population. Adaptive management was implemented to assess the feasibility of fertility control and to allow prediction of the required level of vaccination to limit goat numbers. The individual probability of breeding success decreased for two years following treatment. Understanding the population demographics alongside modelling of the individual and population-level responses to the vaccine is important for future management.