Imperata cylindrica: reproduction, dispersal, and controls.
Imperata cylindrica is one of the 10 worst weeds in the tropics and subtropics. Although it has many beneficial uses, the problems related to its invasiveness far outweigh its positive benefits. I. cylindrica negatively affects production of annual, perennial, plantation, and forest crops. Its mode of reproduction fosters its extensive growth and very persistent nature because of its high competitive ability in a wide range of habitats. Control efforts for I. cylindrica consist of prevention, cultural, mechanical, biological, and integrated approach. All control methods are not cost effective and require careful planning to achieve the desired outcome. Currently, good control can be achieved by integrating cultural, mechanical, and chemical methods, but long term of management control must involve sustainable strategies such as biological control and revegetation practices.