Assessing tourists' preferences of negative externalities of environmental management programs: a case study on invasive species in Shei-Pa National Park, Taiwan.
This study uses discrete choice experiments to evaluate and reduce the environmental impact of negative externalities of managing invasive alien species (IAS), such as "ecological shock", "health risk", "waiting time" "tour range" and "prevention and control fee", on the support of IAS prevention and control. We used data from Taiwan's Shei-Pa National Park and its visitors for the case study and obtained 602 valid questionnaires. The results indicate that visitors consider that each unit of externality of IAS prevention and control measures significantly reduces their utility, and the magnitude equals the estimated value of externality. However, although negative externalities are inevitable, the support for IAS prevention and control measures could be maximized by adjusting the types and proportions of negative externalities. For example, visitors are willing to sacrifice up to 1.41% of the tour range in exchange for a 1% reduction in ecological shock. This study summarizes the negative externalities of IAS prevention and control measures and proposes to adjust the combination of negative externalities to reduce the shocks of those IAS prevention and control measures on the public, so as to increase the public support for IAS policies and increase the sustainability of tourism.