Hatchery culture of European clam species (family Veneridae).
Aquaculture and capture production of clam species have great economic value in Europe. The production is dominated by the introduced species, Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, which has displaced some of the native species of clams. In Europe, landings of autochthonous clams have decreased in the recent years due to overfishing, failure in recruitment, abiotic stress and diseases. Due to aforementioned factors, seed production in hatcheries has become essential to ensure the sustainability of the fisheries and aquaculture production of European native clams. Many studies have focused on the different steps involved in hatchery rearing, but the volume of seed of native species produced in commercial hatcheries is still relatively low in comparison to the exotic Manila clam. Presently, in European hatcheries, seeds from only two native species, Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis corrugata, are produced at industrial scale. The present review analyses the state of hatchery culture of European native clam species, and the aims are to transfer information to the industry and identify critical gaps that might be impeding the development of hatchery production.