Oviposition-induced volatiles affect electrophysiological and behavioral responses of egg parasitoids.
In response to an attack by herbivores, plants emit a variety of compounds that may act as semiochemicals. Oviposition-induced volatiles (OIPVs) have been shown to mediate interactions between plants and natural enemies. Here, we investigated the role of OIPVs by Tuta absoluta towards two egg parasitoids, Trichogramma cordubense and T. achaeae. We collected headspace volatiles from tomato plants at 24, 48, and 72 h after oviposition by T. absoluta females and tested the antennographic response of Trichogramma parasitoids to them by means of gas chromatography-electro-antennographical detection (GC-EAD). The response of the parasitoids was also tested in behavioral experiments using a Y-tube olfactometer. Oviposition by T. absoluta females induced qualitative and quantitative changes in the volatiles emitted by tomato plants. Antennae of Trichogramma parasitoids responded to several of the induced volatiles in GC-EAD. T. cordubense females were attracted to tomato plants with T. absoluta eggs 24 h after oviposition. The elucidation of the behavior of egg parasitoids towards OIPVs enhances the development of sustainable management strategies either by selecting species that exploit OIPVs or by manipulating their foraging behavior by utilizing specific OIPVs that are used by parasitoids as a host location.