Induction of estrus and methods for control of estrous cycle in bitches.
Studies on the manipulation of estrous cycle in bitches have increased significantly over the years. With the commercial breeding of dogs gaining prominence internationally, there has been a need for improvement of the reproductive management of these animals, as well as the treatment of conditions which are detrimental to bitches' fertility. Another reason is that domestic dogs can also act as experimental models to several species of wild dogs and to man. This has been associated with a greater availability of estrus-induction pharmacological drugs, such as dopamine agonists, GnRH analogue and protocols with gonadotropin, such as eCG. Efficient manipulation of the estrous cycles is of great importance for the improvement of the reproductive biotechnology in this species. Notwithstanding the advances in research, the drugs have not yet been sufficiently tested in order to have their action fully understood, nor to identify their strengths and weakness. This literature review aims to expand the information on subject, addressing aspects related to the reproductive physiology and endocrinology in bitches, as well as the main modulators of the estrous cycle, pointing out their effects and differences and providing information for the creation of new efficient protocols for induction of estrus in those animals.