Some results of studying varieties of bird cherry in the conditions of Orel region.
The article presents the results of a study of a set of basic qualities and properties of varieties and forms of bird cherry (Prunus padus L.) present in the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding gene pool. The study was conducted on the basis of the laboratory of breeding and varieties studying of the stone fruits of the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding in the period from 2016 to 2018. The varieties and forms of the bird cherry which were introduced into the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding from the Central Siberian Botanic Garden were used as objects of the research. The plants were planted on the site in 2012. The most important qualities of the bird cherry were considered. The study of the productivity of different varieties and forms of the bird cherry concerned the study of the degree of flowering and the degree of fruiting of plantings for a given period of time equal to 3 years. The indicators were calculated by folding the indicators from all the available replicates and calculating the average from them for each presented year of studies. As a result of the research, it was found that most varieties and forms have positive tree productivity characteristics for the bird cherry. The resistance of the bird cherry plants to fungal diseases is represented in the studies of the resistance of this crop to the main diseases of stone fruit cultures - leaf spot and brown rot. The degree of trees freezing characterized the resistance of plants to the adverse factors of the winter period. The general condition of the trees was a comprehensive indicator. On the basis of the obtained data, the forms of the bird cherry 14-3-31, 14-2-34 and A-25-1 stood out in particular. These variety samples can be used in the further selection of bird cherry for a set of economically valuable traits.