Melanoderma boninense, a new species of Melanoderma (Polyporales, Agaricomycota) from the Bonin Islands in Japan.
Melanoderma boninense is described and illustrated as a new species from the Bonin Islands, Japan, on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic investigations. This species is characterized by sessile basidiocarps with an ungulate pileus, a black crust on the pileus surface, pores 4-6/mm, a dimitic hyphal system comprising clamped generative hyphae and cyanophilous skeletal binding hyphae with or without a dextrinoid reaction, cylindrical basidiospores measuring 5.5-7.5×2-3 μm, and cystidioles on the sides of tubes and near the pore surface. Morphological examination of authentic specimens of other Melanoderma species revealed that the genus is variable in terms of the shape and size of cystidioles. A black crust on the pileus surface composed of palisade and highly agglutinated hyphae is a distinctive diagnostic morphological feature of Melanoderma that differentiates it from allied genera. Melanoderma boninense, which is currently known from a restricted area of the Bonin Islands, is potentially threatened by environmental reduction of the type locality due to the invasive tree Bischofia javanica.