First report of Tomato brown rugose fruit virus on tomato in Egypt.
In June 2019, leaf samples from hybrid tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Elquds E448) were collected from four regions in Fayoum and Ismailia Governorates, Egypt. Twenty samples were collected from plants with viral symptoms and nine from asymptomatic plants. The diseased samples had mosaics, deformation and necrosis on the leaves, and discoloration and deformations on fruits. DAS-ELISA test showed that of the diseased samples, four tested positive for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), three each for Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), two for Tomato chlorosis virus, six for Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) antisera, and three samples had a mixed infection with TSWV and ToBRFV. The ToBRFV antisera gave a weak cross reaction with ToMV. The presence of ToBRFV was further confirmed by sap transmission, RT-PCR assay, nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. This is thought to be the first report of ToBRFV infecting tomato in Egypt and the ease with which it is mechanically transmitted may explain its rapid emergence around the world.