Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Vitis methods to understand and develop strategies for diagnosis and sustainable control of grapevine trunk diseases.

Abstract

Vitis vinifera is affected by many diseases every year, depending on causal agents, susceptibility of cultivars, and climate region. Some are caused by a single agent, such as gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea or powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator. Others result from the actions of a complex of pathogens such as grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs). GTDs are presently among the most devastating diseases in viticulture worldwide because both the economic losses and the long-term sustainability of vineyards are strongly affected. The complexity of GTDs results from the diversity of associated fungi, the undetermined period of latency within the vine (asymptomatic status), the erratic foliar symptom expression from one year to the next, and, probably correlated with all of these points, the lack of efficient strategies to control them. Distinct methods can be beneficial to improve our knowledge of GTDs. In vitro bioassays with cell suspensions, calli, foliar discs, full leaves, or plantlets, and in vivo natural bioassays with cuttings, grafted plants in the greenhouse, or artificially infected ones in the vineyard, can be applied by using progressive integrative levels of in vitro and in vivo, depending on the information searched. In this review, the methods available to understand GTDs are described in terms of experimental procedures, main obtained results, and deliverable prospects. The advantages and disadvantages of each model are also discussed.