Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Pest management and ochratoxin A contamination in grapes: a review.

Abstract

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most toxic member of ochratoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The most relevant species involved in OTA production in grapes is Aspergillus carbonarius. Berry infection by A. carbonarius is enhanced by damage to the skin caused by abiotic and biotic factors. Insect pests play a major role in European vineyards, and Lepidopteran species such as the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana are undoubtedly crucial. New scenarios are also emerging due to the introduction and spread of allochthonous pests as well as climate change. Such pests may be involved in the dissemination of OTA producing fungi even if confirmation is still lacking and further studies are needed. An OTA predicting model is available, but it should be integrated with models aimed at forecasting L. botrana phenology and demography in order to improve model reliability.