Comparison of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of PPR live attenuated vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96) administered by intranasal and subcutaneous routes.
Following the successful eradication of rinderpest, the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have set a goal to eradicate peste des petits ruminants (PPR) globally by 2030. Vaccination is being taken forward as the key strategy along with epidemiological surveillance to target vaccination efforts and eradicate the disease. PPR is highly contagious and is generally spread by aerosolized droplets and close contact. Currently, two live attenuated vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96) are in use, and administered subcutaneously to prevent transmission of PPR and protect vaccinated animals. Though the target cells that support primary replication of PPR vaccine strains are largely unknown, it is hypothesized that the immune response could be intensified following intranasal vaccine delivery as this route mimics the natural route of infection. This study aims to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the two currently available live attenuated PPR vaccines following subcutaneous and intranasal routes of vaccination in target species. Groups of five goats were vaccinated with live attenuated PPR vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96) by either the subcutaneous or intranasal route, and 28 days later challenged intranasally with virulent PPR virus. All vaccinated animals regardless of vaccination route produced PPRV-specific antibodies post-vaccination. Following challenge, all goats were protected from clinical disease, and vaccination was considered to have induced sterilizing immunity. This study demonstrates that the intranasal route of vaccination is as effective as the subcutaneous route of vaccination when using available live attenuated PPR vaccines.