Assessment of the nutrient removal potential of floating native and exotic aquatic macrophytes cultured in swine manure wastewater.
Although eutrophication and biological invasion have caused serious harm to aquatic ecosystems, exotic and even invasive plants have been used extensively in phytoremediation water systems in China. To identify native aquatic plants with excellent water restoration potential, two representative native floating aquatic plants from Guangdong Province, namely Ludwigia adscendens (PL) and Trapa natans (PT), were selected, with Eichhornia crassipes as a control, to study their growth status, adaptability, and nutrient removal potentials in swine manure wastewater. The results demonstrated that the two native plants offered greater advantages than E. crassipes in water restoration. Within 60 days, PL and PT exhibited excellent growth statuses, and their net biomass growth rates were 539.8% and 385.9%, respectively, but the E. crassipes decayed and died with an increasing HRT (hydraulic retention time). The PL and PT could adjust the pH of the wastewater, improve the dissolved oxygen and oxidation-reduction potential, and reduce the electrical conductivity value. The removal rates of NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2--N, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and Chl-a in the PL group reached 98.67%, 64.83%, 26.35%, 79.30%, 95.90%, 69.62%, and 92.23%, respectively; those in the PT group reached 99.47%, 95.83%, 85.17%, 83.73%, 88.72%, 75.06%, and 91.55%, respectively. The absorption contribution rates of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the PL group were 40.6% and 43.5%, respectively, while those in the PT group were 36.9% and 34.5%, respectively. The results indicated that L. adscendens and T. natans are both promising aquatic plants for application to the restoration of swine manure wastewater in subtropical areas.