Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Rapid detection of Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa on peach and nectarine using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

Abstract

Monilinia laxa and M. fructicola are two causal agents of brown rot, one of the most important diseases in stone fruit. Two species cause blight on blossoms and twigs and brown rot on fruit in pre- and postharvest. Both species are distributed worldwide in North and South America, Australia, and Japan. In Europe, M. laxa is endemic, while M. fructicola was introduced in 2001 and it is now widespread in several countries. Currently, both species coexist in European stone fruit orchards. Monilinia spp. overwinter in cankers and mummified fruit. Mummy monitoring during winter permits growers to understand which species of Monilinia will be prevalent in an orchard during the following season, permitting planning of an appropriate crop protection. Traditionally, the identification has been carried out using morphological features and even with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays that requires time and well-equipped laboratories. In this study, two isothermal-based methods were designed to identify these pathogens in a faster way than using traditional methods. The loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assays were validated on some isolates of Monilinia spp. coming from the mummy monitoring according to the international European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization standard (PM7/98), taking into account specificity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. The sensitivity of both assays was checked by monitoring (at different time points) two nectarine varieties artificially inoculated and stored at two different temperatures. The reliability of both LAMP assays against the quantification of the inoculum was compared with previously published quantitative PCR assays. Both LAMP methods were able to detect a low number of cells. These LAMP methods could be a useful tool for monitoring brown rot causal agents in the field and during postharvest.