New insights into the harmful algae inhibition by Spartina alterniflora: cellular physiology and metabolism of extracellular secretion.
This study investigated the response of three toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) species, Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Alexandrium tamarense to coastal invasive plant, Spartina alterniflora. In this study, the growth of three HABs species were suppressed significantly by S. alterniflora extracts, showing a dose-response relationship. The raphidophyte H. akashiwo and C. marina exhibited higher inhibitory response with EC50,7d decreased by 14% and 75% as compared to the dinoflagellate A. tamarense. C. marina was the most sensitive among the three species. S. alterniflora extracts disrupted algal cellular integrity and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the extracellular organic matters were detected by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix. Algal metabolites, protein-like substances (tyrosine-like peak and tryptophan-like peak) decreased as time prolonged and the humic-like substances (UVA marine humic-like peak) increased when algal cells were exposed to S. alterniflora extracts. These results provide new insights to the inhibition mechanism of S. alterniflora extracts on HABs species.