Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a captive kinkajou (Potos flavus).
Background: A clinical diagnosis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome requires isolation of streptococci from a normally sterile site, hypotension, and two or more of the following; evidence of hepatic or renal involvement, coagulopathy, acute respiratory distress, or extensive soft tissue necrosis. Case Description: An approximately 5-year-old intact, male, captive-raised kinkajou (Potos flavus) was evaluated for severe respiratory distress and obtunded mentation. On presentation, the kinkajou was nonresponsive, laterally recumbent, hypothermic, tachypneic, and had marked upper respiratory sounds. Thoracic radiograph findings included pneumothorax, most severe in the left hemithorax, and pulmonary atelectasis. Bloodwork revealed neutrophilia with a left shift, azotemia, thrombocytopenia, and liver enzyme elevations. On the blood smear, a low number of neutrophils exhibited phagocytized cocci bacteria indicative of bacteremia. The animal died shortly after presentation. Conclusions and Case Relevance: On necropsy, pneumothorax was confirmed, and the lungs were severely atelectatic with bullae. Histopathology revealed septic thrombi within pulmonary arteries and meningeal vessels. Streptococcus canis was cultured from lung samples and a Lancefield Group G Streptococcus was cultured from the blood. Oral swabs of one cagemate and one new individual acquired by the same owner both cultured S. canis. This report describes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, previously unreported in kinkajous or any nondomestic species.