Predator-induced stress influences fall armyworm immune response to inoculating bacteria.
The insect innate immune system is assorted into two general categories, cellular and humoral immunity. Aside from direct challenge by invaders, predation risk can be perceived as odors, sounds or nearness. In this study, we evaluated influence of predation risk by the predatory bug Podisus maculiventris on immunity of an herbivore Spodoptera frugiperda. Under the predator-induced stress combined with Escherichia coli inoculation, several larval physiological parameters of S. frugiperda were studied, including body mass, nodulation, and phenoloxidase activity. Our findings offer new evidence that provides insight into the immunological mechanism of predator-induced stress effects on prey species.