Fungal pathogens associated with young grapevine decline in the Southern Turkey vineyards.
Young grapevine decline is a common and important disease caused by fungal plant pathogens in Turkey vineyards. Every year many grape growers face this problem in their vineyards and seek solutions to cope with it. The aims of the study were to examine fungal pathogens of young grapevine decline in Southern Turkey and to determine pathogenicity of fungi involved in the disease. Twenty vineyards (2-3 years-old, located in Adana, Mersin and Gaziantep cities) were surveyed in March 2018 and declining whole plants were sampled and processed for mycological procedures. Sub-cultured fungal colonies were examined for colony morphology and conidia-conidiophore shapes under light microscope. For molecular identification, ITS, beta-tubulin, histone and TEF1-alpha gene regions were amplified with PCR using appropriate primers and PCR products were subsequently sequenced. The sequences were compared with those deposited in the NCBI GenBank database using the BLASTn program and fungal identifications were confirmed by getting accession numbers. Pathogenicity tests were fulfilled under greenhouse conditions for two months. The results indicated that Botryosphaeria Dieback and Black Foot fungi were two most common pathogen groups, while Petri Disease and Diaporthe Dieback pathogens had minor incidence. Although a variety of Fusarium species were isolated from declined vines, only F. brachygibbosum and F. solani were found to have considerable role in disease occurrence.