Three Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose on Synsepalum dulcificum (miracle fruit).
By 2016, fruit rot and two different leaf diseases (leaf spot and leaf blight) were found on Synsepalum dulcificum (miracle fruit) in Tokyo, Kanagawa and Kagoshima prefectures of Japan. From the lesions, abundant conidial masses and acervuli of three Colletotrichum species, two of which produced sexual state, were observed. We conducted a pathogenicity assay using these Colletotrichum species on healthy fruits and leaves of S. dulcificum. Our artificial inoculation tests showed symptoms of disease on tested fruit and leaf and indicated all three Colletotrichum species as causal agents of anthracnose on S. dulcificum. Based on morphological characters and molecular phylogenetic analyses using ITS, GAPDH, ACT, CAL and TUB2 loci, these species were identified as Colletotrichum aenigma (MAFF 246750), C. siamense (MAFF 246751) and C. karstii (MAFF 245966). They have been previously reported as plant pathogenic fungi elsewhere in the world. This is the first report of fruit rot, leaf blight and leaf spot on S. dulcificum caused by these three Colletotrichum species.