Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Invasions of four South American tramp ants: a systematic review.

Abstract

The invasion and spread of four native South American ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Linepithema humile, Solenopsis invicta, Wasmannia auropunctata and Paratrechina (Nylanderia) fulva all over the world, their environmental and economic impact, and intended control tactics are documented. Displacement of these invasive species is triggered by human international movement of goods, and in one case, P. fulva, a deliberately introduction as a candidate for biological control of Atta spp. and snakes. These tramp ants displace native ants, attack native birds and reptiles, protect and transport sap sucking insects, cause damage to human commodities, and are able to cause health problems to men and domestic animals. Chemical control, producing negative environmental side effects, has shown poor success and short residual effect. Current tendencies use biological control agents, the natural enemies, parasites, predators and diseases of their original range. Quarantine and eradication programs have been implemented. The success of the tramp ants involves a small size that permits hiding in all types of packing materials, their organization in societies, varied diets, and in many cases to their late detection and initial control.