Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

First report of Diaporthe foeniculina causing black tip and necrotic spot on hazelnut kernel in Chile.

Abstract

Chile is the largest producer of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in the southern hemisphere. Currently, there are ~22,000 ha established with a total yield per year reaching 19,000 metric tonnes. Fungi reduce the quality and condition of the hazelnut kernel in many cases exceeding the tolerance limits required by the Chilean hazelnut industry. During 2017, hazelnuts were collected from the FrutĂ­cola AgriChile reception center located in Cunco, Chile. A total of 2,148 samples (120 hazelnuts per sample) of the cultivars Barcelona (n = 1,207) and Tonda di Giffoni (n = 941) from 265 orchards in five regions were cracked open and inspected for kernel defects in the laboratory. The incidence of black tips and necrotic spots on kernels was 5.37% for Barcelona and 8.68% for Tonda di Giffoni. Based on morphological observations, sequence analysis of the DNA internal transcribed spacer region and pathogenicity test, the causal agent was identified as D. foeniculina. D. eres was implicated as the dominant species associated with brown spot of hazelnuts in the Caucus region. This is thought to be the first report of D. foeniculina as a causal agent of black tip and necrotic spots on hazelnut kernel in Chile.