Anthropogenic transformations of river valley's vegetation and their impact on perception of ecosystem services by inhabitants. a case study from the Kłodnica valley (Silesian upland, Poland).
Over 200 years of anthropopressure had an impact on the abiotic and biotic environment of the Kłodnica valley, as well as on ecosystem services and the standard of living of its inhabitants. Vegetation of semi-natural section of the Kłodnica valley (Katowice) was created by species-rich and species diverse phytocoenoses of nitrophilous fringes (Urtico-Calystegietum sepium, Alliaria petiolata-Valeriana sambucifolia community), wet (Alopecuretum pratensis) and fresh (Festuca rubra community) meadows. The probability of flood was low. Anthropogenic section of the Kłodnica valley (Gliwice) was dominated by poor in species and low diverse communities of invasive (Impatiens parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Aster novi-belgii-Parthenocissus inserta) and expansive plants (Urtico-Aegopodietum podagrariae, Bromus inermis community). The probability of flood was high. Provisioning (fresh water), regulating (climate, flood regulation), as well as cultural (aesthetic value of landscape and plant cover, recreation) services were degraded and in the opinion of the residents the valley needs revitalization.