Ecology and evolution of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum.
The sudden oak and sudden larch death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum emerged simultaneously in the United States on oak and in Europe on Rhododendron in the 1990s. This pathogen has had a devastating impact on larch plantations in the United Kingdom as well as mixed conifer and oak forests in the Western United States. Since the discovery of this pathogen, a large body of research has provided novel insights into the emergence, epidemiology, and genetics of this pandemic. Genetic and genomic resources developed for P. ramorum have been instrumental in improving our understanding of the epidemiology, evolution, and ecology of this disease. The recent reemergence of EU1 in the United States and EU2 in Europe and the discovery of P. ramorum in Asia provide renewed impetus for research on the sudden oak death pathogen.