Vegetational study of the temple city of Bhubaneswar (India): analysis of floristic diversity.
The present study was carried out in the fast expanding temple city of Bhubaneswar in order to understand its floristic diversity after about 70 years of its inception. From selected sites, both from Central and Transitional/Peripheral zones, a total 572 plant species were recorded that included 138 herbs, 36 shrubs, 100 trees, 35 climbers, 93 grasses, 16 hydro- phytes, 2 epiphytes, 3 parasites, 2 bryophytes and 18 pteridophytes. From the study sites, 50 cultivars, 15 wild introduced and 12 weeds were recorded from the Central and Transition zones of the city besides 111 species of medicinal and 21 species poisonous/ toxic plants. Ten plants species were found to be endangered, threatened and vulnerable. Further, 60 plant species were identified as invasive alien species with Ageratum conyzoides L., Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit, Sida acuta L., Alternanthera paronychioides St., Cleome viscosa L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. being abundant. From the analysis of Family Importance Value index, it was observed that Poaceae with 56 species was the most dominant family followed by Cyperaceae, Fabaceae Asteraceae, Euphorbiace- ae, Rubiaceae, Mimosaceae, Convolvulaceae and Lamiaceae with high species richness. A total of five species such as Cassis alata L., Clerondrum incisium Klotzsch., Aspargus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop., Allamanda nerifolia Hook. and Portulaca umbraticola Kunth were recorded for the first time from the study areas of Bhubaneswar.