The entomofauna on Eucalyptus in Israel: a review.
The first successful Eucalyptus stands were planted in Israel in 1884. This tree genus, particularly E. camaldulensis, now covers approximately 11,000 ha and constitutes nearly 4% of all planted ornamental trees. Here we review and discuss the information available about indigenous and invasive species of insects that develop on Eucalyptus trees in Israel and the natural enemies of specific exotic insects of this tree. Sixty-two phytophagous species are recorded on this tree of which approximately 60% are indigenous. The largest group are the sap feeders, including both indigenous and invasive species, which are mostly found on irrigated trees, or in wetlands. The second largest group are wood feeders, polyphagous Coleoptera that form the dominant native group, developing in dying or dead wood. Most of the seventeen parasitoids associated with the ten invasive Eucalyptus-specific species were introduced as biocontrol agents in classical biological control projects. None of the polyphagous species recorded on Eucalyptus pose any threat to this tree. The most noxious invasive specific pests, the gall wasps (Eulophidae) and bronze bug (Thaumastocoris peregrinus), are well controlled by introduced parasitoids. Potential entomological hazards of Eucalyptus in Israel are most likely to originate from the Australian insect fauna.