A decade on: an updated assessment of the status of marine non-indigenous species in Brazil.
In order to prevent the introduction, control or eradicate non-indigenous species (NIS) which threaten native species, habitats or ecosystems, an essential first step is that countries have and keep up-to-date lists of species non-indigenous to the region. The last list of marine NIS for Brazil was published a decade ago. We compiled an updated list of marine NIS and revised the species' statuses. One-hundred-thirty-eight marine species in 15 classes or functional groups are NIS in Brazil. Brazilian states with greater maritime commerce (greater market share) had more marine NIS. From the period between the 1950s to 2010, the number of NIS at least doubled each decade. We identified a significant mismatch (underestimation) between the previous list and this study, which seemed to be due to improved scientific knowledge and an often considerable lag between first record (detection), identification and communication of new marine NIS. Currently Brazil has 19 invasive, 76 established and 43 detected marine NIS, an increase of 160% in ten years compared to the previous national list. We recommend that Brazil implements a national database as a rapid, appropriate, flexible and cost effective method of monitoring trends in NIS introductions.