Emergent and possible invasive pest species of weevils in Mexico.
Mexico is a center of New World crop origins with many insect species associated with the wild crop relatives, some of which have become pests of cultivated plants. Many of these indigenous pests of Mexico are weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some represent potential quarantine pests. In the present work, we present some of the most important species of weevils considered as crop pests, which are presently restricted primarily to Mexico with the potential to invade other regions. We also present species of weevils exotic to Mexico, considered by national quarantine authorities to be possible threats to Mexican agriculture. Potential quarantine weevil pests for avocado include Conotrachelus aguacatae Barber, Conotrachelus perseae Barber, Heilipus lauri Boheman, Heilipus albopictus Champion, and Copturus aguacatae Kissinger (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae). For guava, species include Conotrachelus dimidiatus Champion and Conotrachelus copalensis Salas-Araiza and Romero-Nápoles (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Weevil pests reported with quarantine importance for sugar cane are Sphenophorus incurrens Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Apinocis angustus (Casey), and Apinocis subnudus (Buchanan) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The weevil Rhyssomatus nigerrimus Fåhraeus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) recently has been observed damaging soybeans in northern and southern Mexico. Cactophagus spinolae Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is a generalist cactus pest. Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is a well-known pest of cultivated and wild agaves. Several species of Epicaerus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been reported on various crops in restricted areas including, among others, Epicaerus operculatus (Say) on garlic, and Epicaerus cognatus Sharp (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on potato. Amphidees latifrons (Sharp) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has been reported from apples in localized regions of northern Coahuila. Weevils exotic to Mexico of quarantine concern are Naupactus cervinus Boheman, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).