Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Effects of the competition between invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia and the native plants on species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Abstract

Invasion plants often cause changes in the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in invaded areas, while the correlation between the changes of AMF diversity and native plant species in invaded areas is still unclear. Field homogeneity garden experiment was carried out to study the effect of the competition between invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia and native plants on the diversity of AMF. Eight treatments designed included monoculture of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, monoculture of native Setaria viridis, monoculture of native Chenopodium album, monoculture of native Melilotus officinalis, mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and Setaria viridis, mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and Chenopodium album, mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and Melilotus officinalis, and bare soil (without any plant growth) as experimental control. AMF were sampled from rhizosphere soil and plant biomass and diversity of AMF were investigated. The results showed that the biomass of monocultured A. artemisiifolia plants was higher than that of the plants in mixed culture. The competitive ability of A. artemisiifolia was the strongest in mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and M. officinalis, but the weakest in mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and S. viridis. The species richness and Shannon Weiner index of AMF in rhizosphere soil of mixed culture of A. artemisiifoli and respective three native plants were significantly higher than that in monoculture of A. artemisiifolia and three native plants, showing the highest in mixed culture of A. artemisiifoli and Chenopodium album, but the lowest in mixed culture of A. artemisiifoli and S. viridis. The AMF spore density in the rhizosphere soil in mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and respective tested native plants was significantly lower than that in monoculture of native plants (except for A. artemisiifolia and M. officinalis mixture). Glomus reticulatum and Septoglomus constrictum were dominant in the soil of monocultures of A. artemisiifolia, S. viridis, C. album and the mixed culture of A. artemisiifoli and S. viridis or C. album. Glomus reticulatum, S. constrictum and Rhizophagus intraradices were dominant in the soil of monoculture of M. officinalis. Glomus reticulatum and R. intraradices were dominant in mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and M. officinalis. Rhizoglomus manihotis, Claroideoglomus claroideum and Scutellospora calospora were dominant in the soil of monoculture of S. viridis, and mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and S. viridis or C. album. There was a significant positive correlation between plant biomass and AMF spore density in the soil of monoculture of S. viridis, but a significant negative correlation was found between the biomass and uniformity of A. artemisiifolia in mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and S. viridis. A significant positive correlation was found between the biomass of A. artemisiifolia and the AMF spore density in the soil of mixed culture of A. artemisiifolia and M. officinalis, significantly negative correlation occurred between the plant biomass and the Shannon Weiner index of AMF. In conclusion, the effect of competition between A. artemisiifolia and native plants on the diversity of AMF is heterogeneous, and this phenomenon is closely related to native plant species.