Determination of biotic and abiotic plant diseases in Green Belt Afforestation of Kahramanmaraș-Elmalar.
The afforestation was carried out around the city in order to prevent hazardous environmental and air pollution problems and with the purpose of recreational urban forests facility for public health in Green Belt Afforestation Project in 2003-2004 supported by Kahramanmaras Regional Directorate of Forestry. Our study was performed in one of the Green Belt Afforestation Fields (1675 ha.) area near the city center. In the study Pinus brutia, Pinus pinea, Cupressus sempervirens, Prunus mahalep, Amygdalus sp., Pyrus elaegnifolia and the alien origin Pinus brutia var. elderica plant species were used. A large quantity of disorders and dryness in the alien origin (Pinus brutia var. Elderica) were observed during the study. Greater number of insect and fungal diseases were detected on this species than others. The insects including Thaumetopha pityocampa-wilkinsoni (Lep.), Rhyaciona buoliana (Lep.), Ortotomicus erosus (Scolytidea, Col.), Hylurgus ligniperda (Scolytidea, Col.), Hylurgus micklitzi (Scolytidea, Col.), Tomicus piniperda (Scolytidea, Col.), Tomicus destruens (Scolytidea, Col.), Ips sexdentatus (Scolytidea, Col.), Leucaspis pusilla (Coccoidea-Hem.) and some fungal diseases such as Melampsora piniturqua, Diplodea pinea were detected. As a result of observing the form disorder within the whole tree species, some factors such as climate, bedrock and soil characteristics were examined. As a result of the combination of inefficient bedrock and soil conditions with adverse climatic conditions, it has been determined that trees that cannot be well adapted to the conditions of the site were weakened and finally dried. Consequently, the selection of the suitable species is very important in terms of ecological and economic aspects considering the site factors in order to minimize the diseases of insect and fungi in the future afforestation.