Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

The role of adiponectin in placentation and preeclampsia.

Abstract

Preeclampsia is not fully understood; and few biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and therapeutic agents for its management have been identified. Original investigative findings suggest that abnormal placentation triggers preeclampsia and leads to hypertension, proteinuria, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, which are characteristics of the disease. Because of the regulatory roles that it plays in several metabolic processes, adiponectin has become a cytokine of interest in metabolic medicine. In this review, we have discussed the role of adiponectin in trophoblast proliferation, trophoblast differentiation, trophoblast invasion of the decidua, and decidual angiogenesis, which are the major phases of placentation. Also, we have highlighted the physiological profile of adiponectin in the course of normal pregnancy. Moreover, we have discussed the involvement of adiponectin in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and proteinuria. Furthermore, we have summarized the reported relationship between the maternal serum adiponectin level and preeclampsia. The available evidence indicates that adiponectin level physiologically falls as pregnancy advances, regulates placentation, and exhibits protective effects against the symptoms of preeclampsia and that while hyperadiponectinemia is evident in normal-weight preeclamptic women, hypoadiponectinemia is evident in overweight and obese preeclamptic women. Therefore, the clinical use of adiponectin as a biomarker, therapeutic target, or therapeutic agent against the disease looks promising and should be considered.