Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Infection of tomato by Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus alters the foraging behavior and parasitism of the parasitoid Encarsia formosa on Bemisia tabaci.

Abstract

Encarsia formosa Gahan is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies including Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Bemisia tabaci biotypes B and Q are two most invasive species that greatly reduce crop yields in China by feeding on plant sap and by transmitting Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV). The effects of TYLCV infection of tomato on E. formosa foraging on B. tabaci B and Q are unknown. In Y-tube olfactometer assays in the present study, E. formosa significantly preferred TYLCV-infected tomato plants over TYLCV-free plants. The wasp females also significantly preferred TYLCV-infected tomato plants infested with 3rd-instar nymphs of B. tabaci biotype Q over TYLCV-free plants with biotype Q nymphs. However, no significant differences were observed when B. tabaci biotype B was infested on tomato plants. The oviposition bioassays confirmed that TYLCV infection on tomato plants resulted in the recruitment of parasitoids. These results indicate that TYLCV-infection of tomato increase the foraging of E. formosa on B. tabaci, as differs on the B and Q biotypes.