Journey of begomovirus betasatellite molecules: from satellites to indispensable partners.
Betasatellites are a group of circular, single-stranded DNA molecules that are frequently found to be associated with monopartite begomoviruses of the family Geminiviridae. Betasatellites require their helper viruses for replication, movement, and encapsidation and they are often essential for induction of typical disease symptoms. The βC1 protein encoded by betasatellites is multifunctional that participates in diverse cellular events. It interferes with several cellular processes like normal development, chloroplasts, and innate immune system of plants. Recent research has indicated βC1 protein interaction with cellular proteins and its involvement in modulation of the host's cell cycle and symptom determination. This article focuses on the functional mechanisms of βC1 and its interactions with other viral and host proteins.