The role of G protein-coupled receptor-related genes in cytochrome P450-mediated resistance of the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), to imidacloprid.
Ninety-four putative G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were identified in the Musca domestica genome. They were annotated and compared with their homologues in Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic analyses of the GPCRs from both species revealed that several family members shared a closer relationship based on the domain architecture. The expression profiles of these genes were examined by quantitative real-time PCR amongst three strains of the house fly, a near-isogenic line strain with imidacloprid resistance (N-IRS), the corresponding susceptible strain (CSS) and another strain derived from field populations with imidacloprid resistance (IRS). We found that five GPCR genes were upregulated in the N-IRS and eight GPCR genes were upregulated in the IRS strains compared to the CSS strain. The transgenic lines of D. melanogaster with the GPCR genes (LOC101899380 in the N-IRS strain and LOC101895664 in the IRS strain) exhibited significantly increased tolerance to imidacloprid, and higher expression of cytochrome P450 genes. Bioinformatic analysis of LOC101899380 was carried out based on its full-length nucleic acid sequence and putative amino acid sequence, and it was named Methuselah-like10 (Mthl10) owing to its homology with D. melanogaster Mthl10. A cell-base cell counting kit-8 toxicity assay demonstrated that the expression of the GPCR gene LOC101899380 in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells using a baculovirus-mediated expression system can elevate the cell tolerance to imidacloprid, indirectly supporting the hypothesis that the GPCR gene LOC101899380 plays some role in imidacloprid resistance. These results should be useful for furthering understanding of the regulatory pathway by which house flies develop resistance.