Diapause and biological cycle of Cydalima perspectalis (Walker) in the eastern Pyrenees.
Boxwood is a very important component of the natural forests of the eastern Pyrenees. In the low altitudes of these forests, the invasive species Cydalima perspectalis (Walker) causes considerable damage, and there is concern that it will migrate towards the natural forests at higher altitudes. To determine the biological parameters of the local pest population, a semiartificial diet with lyophilized powdered Buxus sempervirens L. leaves was developed. The results obtained indicate that the studied population of C. perspectalis is very similar to the native Japanese population in terms of the number of larval instars to complete development, the development rate and the critical photoperiod for the induction of diapause. It has also been demonstrated that long photoperiods can shorten the duration of larval development. The diapause induction response was classified as type I, and diapause termination was classified as type III. At the two studied temperatures, 25° and 15°C, the larvae seemed to require a similar number of days in diapause, approximately 3 months, to spontaneously resume development; temperatures can also prompt larvae to resume development. The critical photoperiod in the study area occurs during the second half of August, varying somewhat according to temperature. The greatest defoliation is caused by the offspring of the first generation, while the majority of the larval offspring of the second generation will enter diapause. The survival of natural boxwood in this area will depend on its ability to regrow one or two years after extensive defoliation and on the adaptation of several indigenous natural enemies in the region to feed on C. perspectalis..