Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Laboratory and field evaluation of host-related foraging odor-cue combinations to attract Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

Abstract

The invasive spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is a major pest of soft-skinned fruits. Since its introduction into North America and Europe, significant progress has been made in understanding the volatile cues used by this fly during food, oviposition site, and mate finding. Despite this progress, commercially available lures are non-selective. Here, we tested two Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus) yeast compounds (isoamyl acetate and isobutyl acetate) and a leaf compound β-cyclocitral alone and in combination with a blend of four fermentation compounds ('Fermentation lure': acetic acid, ethanol, methionol, and acetoin) to improve D. suzukii attraction and selectivity. In laboratory assays, males and females were attracted to all seven individual compounds, although in electrophysiological assays, their antennae exhibited a dose-dependent response to only four of these compounds. In two-choice cage studies, the Fermentation lure was more attractive to D. suzukii than water controls, whereas β-cyclocitral and the mixture of isoamyl acetate and isobutyl acetate were not attractive in this larger-cage study. Moreover, adding the two-component H. uvarum compound blend to the Fermentation lure reduced D. suzukii attraction to the Fermentation blend. When these experiments were repeated in blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and cherry orchards across several states in the United States over 2 yr, similar outcomes were observed: β-cyclocitral or the mixture of the H. uvarum blend did not improve the attractiveness of the Fermentation lure or its selectivity. This study demonstrates that cues from different sources may interfere with each other and reduce D. suzukii attraction to otherwise attractive odor combinations.