Comparative clinico-pathological assessment of velogenic (sub-genotype VIIi) and mesogenic (sub-genotype VIm) Avian avulavirus 1 in chickens and pigeons.
Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects a wide range of avian species worldwide. Recently, several AAvVs of diverse genotypes have emerged with varying genomic and residue substitutions, and subsequent clinical impact on susceptible avian species. We assessed the clinico-pathological influence of two different AAvV 1 pathotypes [wild bird originated-velogenic strain (sub-genotype VIIi, MF437287) and feral pigeon originated-mesogenic strain (sub-genotype VIm, KU885949)] in commercial broiler chickens and pigeons. The velogenic strain caused 100% mortality in both avian species while the mesogenic strain caused 0% and 30% mortality in chickens and pigeons, respectively. Both strains showed tissue tropism for multiple tissues including visceral organs; however, minor variances were observed according to host and pathotype. The observed gross and microscopic lesions were typical of AAvV 1 infection. Utilizing oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, a comparable pattern of viral shedding was observed for both strains from each of the infected individuals of both avian species. The study concludes a varying susceptibility of chickens and pigeons to different wild bird-originated AAvV 1 pathotypes and, therefore, suggests continuous monitoring and surveillance of currently prevailing strains for effective control of the disease worldwide, particularly in disease-endemic countries.