Handling of non-native and target species in core and transition areas of national parks in Germany.
In this study, we investigated the management of non-native species and target species in the core and transition areas of terrestrial national parks in Germany. We focused on the conflict of goals for the national park administrations between protection of natural processes on the one hand and management for biodiversity conservation on the other. We collected data by means of a questionnaire and literature review in 12 of Germany's 16 national parks. This article provides an overview of non-native species occurring in the national parks, and the management measures which have been carried out against non-native species and for target species between 2006 and 2016. Furthermore, we developed two decision-making procedures for the evaluation of these measures. Our study reveals that prevention needs to be given more attention in non-native species management in German national parks. The conflict of goals studied is present in almost all national parks. It can be attenuated by reducing the number or intensity of measures or by revising the zonation of parks. In addition, the underlying concept of naturalness, which can have a historical or actualistic perspective, is an essential reference basis for the assessment of non-native species.