In search of the source of dermatophytosis: epidemiological analysis of Trichophyton verrucosum infection in llamas and the breeder (case report).
During the last few years, the number of cases of Trichophyton verrucosum isolation from humans suffering from mycoses has been constantly increasing, which is correlated with the presence of an increasing number of outdoor breeding farms. Farmers and their families as well as veterinarians and technicians involved in handling the animals are at a higher risk of infection. One of the most important aims of mycological diagnostics is epidemiological analysis. Typically, the history of the disease is not sufficient to indicate reliably and eliminate the outbreak of infection. PCR fingerprinting methods are a useful tool in this type of analysis, which is presented in this study. The main aim is to present diagnostic and epidemiological analyses of dermatophyte isolates from llamas and their breeder. In two llamas, round alopecia sites or ca. 2-cm excoriations covered with thickened scaling epidermis were noticed at the border of the head and neck with a distinct tendency towards hair loss. Tinea unguium was noticed in a nail of the breeder's right hand. Direct analysis of the material from the clinical lesions revealed the presence of arthrospores. The macro- and micromorphology of the isolates were homogeneous and characteristic for T. verrucosum. The identification analysis based on the ITS sequences confirmed the previous morphological diagnostic examination. The MP-PCR and MSP-PCR analysis indicated high invariability of the genomes of the strains isolated from the human and animals. The epidemiological research has indicated an identical source of dermatophyte infection in the breeder and the lamas. To sum up, the number of pets and farm animals is increasing and dermatologists should always be informed about possible dermatophyte transmission sources. The possibility of transmission of zoophilic dermatophytes from humans to animals is a suggestion for further analysis; therefore, this type of transmission should be considered in dermatological studies.