Global status of synchronizing Leishmania RNA virus in Leishmania parasites: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. There is much evidence regarding prevalence of Leishmania RNAvirus (LRV) causing Old World leishmaniasis (OWL) and New World leishmaniasis (NWL); however, a combined evidence-based knowledge on this topic is not still available. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to address the global status of synchronizing LRV in Leishmania in the available literature. The data were systematically collected from the English electronic databases up to May 2018. Then, the studies were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The random-effect model was used by forest plot with 95% confidence interval (CI). Overall, 877 samples from 17 articles were included in this study. Given species of Leishmania, the highest prevalence of LRV belonged to Leishmania (L.) Viannia (V.) guyanensis and L. V. braziliensis. Additionally, the virus was detected also in L. V. amazonensis, L. V. panamanensis, L. V. lainsoni, L. aethiopica, L. major and L. infantum. By random-effect model, the global prevalence of LRV was estimated to be 26.2% (95% CI: 14.4%-40.1%). The high prevalence of LRV among causative agents of NWLisolated from the metastatic clinical forms suggests potential association of LRV with metastatic clinical forms in New World endemic regions. A comprehensive investigation on experimental and clinical aspects of LRV is needed to fully appraise the role of these viruses in pathogenicity of Leishmania parasites and their drug resistance.